An estimated two percent of the world’s population lives with bipolar disorder (BD), which is a severe and complex mental illness with a strong genetic component. An individual with mania and depression may alternate between episodes over the course of their lifetime as well as become ill at some point in their In recent years, physicians have grouped their patients according to their stage of the disease. It is believed that early-stage BD patients have had fewer episodes of either manic or depressive episodes, whereas late-stage patients have had more episodes with more severe effects and have a lower chance of responding A classification between early- and late-stage BD patients is based less on the length of time the patient has been ill than on the frequency and severity of episodes. It may take up to 10 years from the onset of the first episode before any diagnosis of BD can be made. In the case of bipolar disorder, there is no cure, but psychotherapy and prescription medication, such as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics, can be helpful. There are many changes to the brain of bipolar patients, including a reduction of volume and progressive degeneration. latter, by contrast, is a pathological manifestation of a normal physiological mechanism by which the brain rewrites its neuronal connections, a process that is associated with memory, learning, and even recovery from brain disorders. The process is associated with the loss of neuron connections and the decline of cognitive abilities and clinical outcomes in bipolar patients.

Previous studies have shown that there is a link between recurrent mood episodes in BD patients and blood levels of several markers related to inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophins (proteins that promote neuron growth). A significant reduction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in BD patients has also been found, as well as an overall reduction of early-growth response 3 (EGR3), a protein related to helping the brain cope with rapid environmental changes, such as toxic substances. Another study has observed low levels of chemokines (proteins that send signals to other components of cells) in the blood of patients with BD in addition to these alterations. These blood markers may suggest that they might also be involved in the severity and frequency of mood episodes in patients with BD. Could they be linked to changes observed in the brain of these


 When neurons exposed to bipolar patients’ serum were compared to neurons exposed to serum from healthy individuals, the group found that neurons exposed to bipolar patients’ serum had a significant loss in neurite density, which serves as an estimate of the number of neuron connections. In the study we conducted, serum from both early-stage and late-stage patients of BD was analyzed separately. No differences in neurite density were seen between the neurons exposed to serum from early-stage patients and the healthy controls. A significant difference was observed in the density of neurites for neurons injected with serum from patients with late-stage disease versus those injected with serum from early-stage disease In addition, the group found there was little difference in the number of neurons between samples, except for those exposed to serum from patients who were at the very end of their illness. In our study, we found that the blood of BD patients treated with plasma is toxic to brain cells and prevents the neural connectivity between them. In light of the known connection between mood episodes and blood toxicity, we believe that the more episodes a patient has, the more components a patient produces that adversely affect her brain’s ability to deal with changes in environmental stimulus, inflammation, and stress,” Klamt says.

It is the first study to demonstrate the toxic effects of BD serum on human neuronal cells and to present an in vitro model for a disease for which no animal model has yet been The future of BD brain research should focus on finding drugs that protect the cells from the toxic effects of their