Using plant breeding, it is possible to manipulate plant species for specific purposes in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes. Using either controlled pollination or genetic engineering, or a combination of both, followed by artificial selection, this manipulation is accomplished. It is not always the case that breeding of plants leads to domesticating them. Hundreds of thousands of years have passed since the beginning of human civilization, when plant breeding was practiced. Now, it is practiced both by government entities and by commercial enterprises worldwide. In the international development sector, breeding new crops is regarded as key to ensuring food security and the development of cultures through the development of crops suitable for the The classical process of plant breeding is to cross closely related or distantly related individuals to create new varieties or lines that possess desirable characteristics. A crossbred variety or line of plants is shown to have traits or genes from a different variety or line. A mildew-resistant pea may be bred with a high-yielding, but susceptible pea with the intent of gaining mildew resistance and retaining the high-yielding qualities of both plants. Backcrossing is the process of crossing the progeny of the cross with the high-yielding parent in order to ensure that the progeny will be most like the parent. progenies of this cross would then be tested to determine their yield potential and mildew resistance, and high-yielding resistant plants would then be A plant may also be crossed with itself to create its own inbred varieties.